Soil and Culture


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Figure I describes those categories in more detail. Non-state ownership Regulation of land uses on private lands adjacent to protected areas may be necessary to ensure that actions on these lands are not detrimental to fulfilling the objectives for the units of the system. With the development of Levera as a National Park, handicraft shops, restaurants, and taxi drivers will receive increased business thereby contributing to their economic well-being. Although areas of outstanding national significance, in general, should be the property of the State, areas which are important but do not warrant acquisition for inclusion within the system may be managed by individuals or by private non-profit organizations.

In such instances Government may provide financial and technical assistance and share certain costs of development of the area once the manager is willing to undertake the operation and protection of the area and when the planned uses of the area are deemed appropriate. The Hotel Association is an excellent example of a qualified private group with whom relationships of this nature could be shared.

Managing the national parks and protected areas system. Protection of natural resources Outdoor recreation Information, interpretation and education Facilities and services Research Interagency co-ordination and collaboration Land ownership State ownership. Functions: The National Park System will be managed to carry out a variety of functions as indicated below.

Specific policies for each management category are detailed in Appendix II. Protection of natural resources The protection of those natural resources which have led to the establishment of each unit within the system will be a primary consideration of management. Factors which could threaten the resource will be analyzed and appropriate protection methods implemented and, when appropriate, measures will be taken to enhance degraded resources.

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Outdoor recreation The System will be managed to provide opportunities for a wide range of recreational activities. The system is not intended to provide for all of the recreational needs of the Country but primarily those that cannot be met in areas not containing outstanding natural or cultural resources. Information, interpretation and education The Areas within the System will be managed to provide visitors with an understanding of the natural and cultural resources in such a way that it enhances their enjoyment and appreciation of the area.

Information relative to the programmes, activities, plans and recreational opportunities of the various areas will be given the widest distribution to ensure that the public, and in particular schools are properly informed of the opportunities available.

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Facilities and services Areas within the System will provide facilities and services necessary for public access, recreation and understanding of the area. The type and location of the facilities will reflect the resource, management category and expected use and will be undertaken in accordance with the site plan.

Certain facilities and services may be provided by the Government or by private concessionaires. The type and quality of service and maintenance standards will be set by the responsible management agency. Research Research concerned with understanding the natural and cultural phenomena and processes, and the protection and use of the areas within the system will be encouraged. Emphasis will be given to undertaking research essential for management purpose but basic research which will expand man's knowledge of the natural environment and cultural resources will be permitted.

The nature of the research will vary with the type of area and its objectives and be regulated to ensure the protection of the resources, and safety and enjoyment of the visitors. Interagency co-ordination and collaboration The National Park Unit will ensure that there is proper co-ordination between the various agencies of Government and others whose activities could affect the resources, or aid in the management of the system.

The National Park unit will be responsible for providing technical information and assessing areas proposed for inclusion within the System. Once included, areas may be excluded from the system only by special law or transferred from one management category to another by direction of Cabinet. Land ownership State ownership Areas established and managed as part of the National Parks and Protected Areas System shall be the property of the State or managed in coordination with the Government.

When lands are formally included within the System all powers of ownership should be transferred to the National Park Unit of the Forestry Department. A provision should be made to encourage private land owners to deed a portion of their land or the management thereof to the State for protection in perpetuity while receiving special rights to continue living on adjacent parcels, but under strictly established management regimes. These provisions for strict State ownership or control should apply to all units classified as National Parks and Natural Landmarks and the majority of Cultural Landmarks.

In Protected Seascapes and Multiple Use Management Areas most of the land and water should be under Government ownership or strict control in perpetuity. In certain specific cases Cultural Landmarks may remain under private ownership but only if specific covenants with the state establish clear management guidelines. The National Parks Program hopes to increase environmental awareness and give students a better understanding of natural processes. Scope The National Parks System Plan includes areas of national, natural, cultural and historical value.

Areas which are critical to water quality and supply are also included for protection. Areas which provide important economic and natural services such as beach erosion control, protection of fishing nursery grounds, or productive ecosystems were also selected for inclusion within the system.

Methodology The process utilized in recommending areas for inclusion into the National Park and Protected Areas System involved a systematic identification and analysis of those areas which best represent the natural and cultural heritage of the country. The inventory phase of the planning process included field trips, overflights, literature review and extensive interviews with knowledgeable individuals. A matrix was designed analyzing the full range of marine and terrestrial ecological zones, vegetative communities, wildlife, geology and geomorphology, and cultural and historical data.

In addition consideration was also given to the education, tourism and scientific potential of proposed areas. Based on this analysis, a series of overlay maps were prepared to help ensure that all areas judged to be important were included within the system. Subsequently this information was correlated with national land-use priorities to minimize conflicts between critical agriculture or forestry areas and activities proposed for the park system.

For example, the national land-use capability map identifies lands in classes I - IV as having potential for agriculture or agro-forestry. Combining this information with soils data, Grenada's most productive lands can be isolated. The national parks inventory was done in a similar fashion using the above mentioned criteria in order to determine those areas offering the most important examples of a particular natural or cultural phenomenon.


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Another area may have been selected due to its outstanding recreation or education potential. A series of these exercises leads to a completed system of national parks and protected areas providing a range of benefits to the country. Most of the terrestrial areas proposed are in capability classes V - Vie, on poor soils and on slopes of greater than 30 percent. All mangrove areas are recommended for protection. Level land with deep soil and no factors limiting the use for agriculture. Land suitable for cultivation with moderate limitations. The risk of erosion is the primary factor limiting development.

Land suitable for cultivation with strong limitations must be cultivated carefully to prevent erosion of the soil.


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Land marginal for cultivation due to extreme danger of erosion. Improved grassland, or tree crops should be established on this land. Land not suitable for cultivation. Tools Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access.

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A comparison of plant toxicities of some industrial chemicals in soil culture and soilless culture.

Get access to the full version of this article. View access options below. You previously purchased this article through ReadCube. Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract Soil is closely connected to the culture and civilization of an ethnic group living in a given place, including their religion, thoughts, livelihood and health.

Citing Literature. Volume 55 , Issue 5 October Pages There was plenty of information on soil imparted but not in the usual way.

Harding gave us the most profound thought of the day when he was asked if calcium and carbon can mitigate climate change — his answer is yes but it will take too long to save us — and he responds that the only thing that might stop climate change is if we learn to love our earth, dirt and all. We have to care deeply about its matter because if we can save it, it might save us. CCANW , as part of Soil Culture, is hosting a series of 12 artist residencies, which give artists space and time to develop artwork which takes soil as its subject.

Artists will be placed in a wide variety of settings to collaborate with environmental organisations in the development of their work. The first round of selected artists include Marissa Benedict, a Chicago-based artist whose work reflects on humans relationship with the materiality of the world and Karen Guthrie, a rising art star in Britain, who has created edible gardens for the public and built earthworks as well as making films. An exhibition of work from the residencies will travel in — Farm size is increasing, while the number of farms is decreasing. This short film captures some of our favourite moments from the Farming and Climate Change conference.

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