Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685


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Parliamentary History

Rebellion: Britain's First Stuart Kings, Tim Harris. A gripping new account of one of the most important and exciting periods of British and Irish history: the reign of the first two Stuart kings, from to the outbreak of civil war in - and why ultimately all three of their kingdoms were to rise in rebellion against Stuart rule.

Both James VI and I and his son Charles I were reforming monarchs, who endeavoured to bolster the authority of the crown and bring the churches in their separate kingdoms into closer harmony with one another.

Many of James's initiatives proved controversial - his promotion of the plantation of Ulster, his reintroduction of bishops and ceremonies into the Scottish kirk, and his stormy relationship with his English parliaments over religion and finance - but he just about got by. Charles, despite continuing many of his father's policies in church and state, soon ran into difficulties and provoked all three of his kingdoms to rise in rebellion: first Scotland in , then Ireland in , and finally England in Was Charles's failure, then, a personal one; was he simply not up to the job?

Or was the multiple-kingdom inheritance fundamentally unmanageable, so that it was only a matter of time before things fell apart?

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Did perhaps the way that James sought to address his problems have the effect of making things more difficult for his son? Tim Harris addresses all these questions and more in this wide-ranging and deeply researched new account, dealing with high politics and low, constitutional and religious conflict, propaganda and public opinion across the three kingdoms - while also paying due attention to the broader European and Atlantic contexts.

The Island at the Center of the World. Russell Shorto.

Charles II - Conservapedia

In a riveting, groundbreaking narrative, Russell Shorto tells the story of New Netherland, the Dutch colony which pre-dated the Pilgrims and established ideals of tolerance and individual rights that shaped American history. A book that will permanently alter the way we regard our collective past. But the story of the Dutch colony of New Netherland was merely lost, not destroyed: 12, pages of its records—recently declared a national treasure—are now being translated. Its capital was cosmopolitan and multi-ethnic, and its citizens valued free trade, individual rights, and religious freedom.

Restoration (England)

Their champion was a progressive, young lawyer named Adriaen van der Donck, who emerges in these pages as a forgotten American patriot and whose political vision brought him into conflict with Peter Stuyvesant, the autocratic director of the Dutch colony. The struggle between these two strong-willed men laid the foundation for New York City and helped shape American culture.


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The Island at the Center of the World uncovers a lost world and offers a surprising new perspective on our own. To an extraordinary extent everyone in Britain still lives under the shadow of the 'Glorious Revolution' of It was a massive, brutal and terrifying event, which completely changed the governments of England, Scotland and Ireland and which was only achieved through overwhelming violence.

Revolution brilliantly captures the sense that this was a great turning point in Britain's history, but also shows how severe a price was paid to achieve this.

Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685

Peter H. The horrific series of conflicts known as the Thirty Years War tore the heart out of Europe, killing perhaps a quarter of all Germans and laying waste to whole areas of Central Europe to such a degree that many towns and regions never recovered. All the major European powers apart from Russia were heavily involved and, while each country started out with rational war aims, the fighting rapidly spiralled out of control, with great battles giving way to marauding bands of starving soldiers spreading plague and murder.

The war was both a religious and a political one and it was this tangle of motives that made it impossible to stop. Revolution claims that popular participation can be found in local officeholding one in 20 at all times in England , but the narrative falls back on stories of rioting. Restoration in England with its population of 5. In England, ten percent of the clergy could not accept the restored Church of England, and several thousand nonconformists died in prison. In Ireland, the Catholic majority had been dispossessed from owning 60 percent of the land in to nine percent in The new regime restored a third of this land, but without toleration for Catholics.

In Scotland the reestablishment of episcopacy drove a third of the ministry out of the church. Families withdrew from church attendance; some went into rebellion. These events created fears among the English that the King aimed at tyranny. Divine right monarchy was asserted by the Anglican clergy , disaffected officeholders were removed , and the Whig campaign was discredited as likely to lead to civil war. Charles twice sent James to rule in Scotland , cementing the loyalty of the Scottish elite to his family.

Restoration: Charles II and his kingdoms, 1660-1685 by Tim Harris (Hardback)

Ireland became quiescent, but here Mr. Harris is less authoritative.

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Some recent historians see James as a successful monarch intent on improving the lot of his coreligionists who was 87 overthrown only by an invading Dutch army and the collaboration of some of the English elite. For Mr. Harris, James was undone by his failure to maintain the alliance with Tory Anglicans that Charles had forged. In overwhelmingly Catholic Ireland under Tyrconnnell, ninety percent of the army and twothirds of the corporations were made Catholic, and the Catholic clergy were pensioned and publicly celebrated the liturgy.

In Scotland which was only two percent Catholic, James tried to get Parliament to grant Catholic toleration and, after failing, had to do so by royal indulgence and to include the dissident Presbyterians.


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He had hoped to establish a precedent for England, but instead split the Scots elite and made an alliance between former Episcopalian and Presbyterian enemies. In England, James kept an army in peacetime larger than had been seen before, failed to call Parliament , and broke the Anglican monopoly Access options available:. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.

Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685 Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685
Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685 Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685
Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685 Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685
Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685 Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685
Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685 Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms, 1660-1685

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