Immediate experience, heightened awareness of time, confrontation with the body, and common vernacular are hallmarks of the modern, and yet they merged with Victorian convention in some war poetry. The distinction between modernist experiment, realism and tradition was at times difficult to distinguish.
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Although war art and literature were interpreted as truth-telling, they were artforms - intended to dramatise, heighten, politicise and catapult direct experiences into aesthetic imagination. Eliot's The Waste Land chimed with the mood of postwar chaos and the subsequent nostalgia for a lost world; The Hollow Men spoke for masculinity's "paralysed force": both became symbols of disenchantment. DH Lawrence was harassed and humiliated during the war: accused of being a spy and rejected as medically unfit for service.
His novels, however, convey the physical sensations of work, lust and gentle touch: it is the war victim's impotence that propels the contravention of class and fidelity in Lady Chatterley's Lover Industrial violence had rendered the body fragile, humbling writers with its intimate sensations: Oliver Mellors recalls "the courage of physical tenderness" in the trenches. War is more than the "glittering" bayonet or bugle's "call to the sun"; it is "frightful and unnatural weariness, water up to the belly.
Mud and dung and infamous filth The Austrian Georg Trakl was traumatised by serving in a medical unit without anaesthetics during the battle of Grodek the title of his masterpiece. His rapid decline ended in suicide, but not before elucidating the nightmares of his suffering:. At evening the woods of autumn are full of the sound Of the weapons of death, golden fields And blue lakes, over which the darkening sun Rolls down; night gathers in Dying warriors, the wild cries Of their shattered mouths Ernst Toller also broke down in the war, but wrote the play Transformation about a soldier who becomes a pacifist.
Writers struggled against the silent pain of trauma, even when overwhelmed. Of which, at the instance Of sound, smell, change and stir, New-old shapes for ever Intensely recur. Blunden conveyed the traumatic condition: painful repetition brought about by memory triggers.
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Yet his memoir Undertones of War is a pastoral ode to the beauty and destruction of landscape, a theme he reiterated for the Imperial War Graves Commission. The paradox of mourning and recovery lay in the contrast between the "chaos and oblivion" of the front and the "harmonious grace and dignity" of the cemeteries. Alongside the need for healing, violence was both a mode of communication and form of entertainment. RC Sherriff's play, Journey's End , cultivated gritty realism that consoled audiences and instilled pride.
But some critics rebuked its representation of alcoholism, cowardice and shellshock. Like Remarque's All Quiet On the Western Front , it crossed over into film, breaking boundaries between elite and popular culture. Fear, disablement and wasted youth as pitiful as a butterfly's short life were treated with dramatic candour, while breaking box-office records. Yet Vaughan Williams, student of Ravel and stretcher-bearer in the Royal army Medical Corps, composed the lyrical, meditative elegy A Pastoral Symphony , before continuing with more innovative syncopations.
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Edward Elgar, meanwhile, felt his own "Pomp and Circumstance" marches too nationalistic for the catastrophe of the war. In Russia, as elsewhere, the music of Mozart and Beethoven was forbidden to be played at concerts, but artists, for the most part, were ambivalent. Symbolists felt there was "wisdom in silence", and the avant garde sustained the advance of abstraction. In Switzerland, Igor Stravinsky read Russian folk tales to rouse his patriotism. From the minimalism of The Soldier's Tale , though, he turned to cool classicism in the s - a common response to the war.
Patriotic verse had its role, as with other nations, but after Russians were less concerned with war literature than with the meaning of revolution. The complexities of victory and defeat also shaped the symbolism. Prematurely aged men, amputees and grotesque mutilations formed the Weimar artists' attack on the glorification of war and the myth of bodily sacrifice.
The "new objectivism" offered biting commentaries on humanity, devoid of emotions and fleshy sensations: Heinrich Hoerle's Monument to the Unknown Prosthesis sacralised prosthetics and presented the next generation as faceless machines. While for Sigmund Freud, whose three sons were drafted, science had lost its "passionless impartiality" as gasses and shells delivered a new degree of viciousness, he also saw man becoming a "prosthetic God". At one end of the cultural spectrum were objectified bodies; at the other were ghosts rising from burial grounds, as in Abel Gance's film J'accuse - where soldiers' bodies formed those damning words - or Stanley Spencer's mural, Resurrection of the Soldiers Sandham Memorial Chapel, Burghclere, Paul Nash described the western front as "unspeakable", "one huge grave" that becomes "invisible to sight".
Yet Nash was compelled by its destruction, painting trees broken as limbs The Menin Road, In the struggle to find meaning in the war, modernism continued as a viable language. Newspapers hailed the "modern revolution" in portraying "the horror", and celebrated the work of Vorticist Wyndham Lewis, who served at Ypres and was an official Canadian war artist: "you can almost see and hear the shells" descending with "powerful Although the ministry of information censored Nevinson's dead tommies Paths of Glory, , there was scope for artists to portray war with ingenuity.
War art was neither propaganda nor simply personal memories on canvas. Audiences connected with and reacted against their visual narratives. When Canadian war surgeon Sir William Osler, whose son died in the war, saw John Singer Sargent's Gassed - blinded soldiers pathetically parading across a noxious landscape - he shuddered: "It haunts the mind like a nightmare. Although the war forced artists and writers to confront the carnage, the response of some avant garde artists and ideologues was ambivalent.
Marinetti wanted "words to explode like shells, or ache like wounds". With so many artists either killed or injured, heroic fantasies were translated into victimhood. Yet Breton's Surrealist Manifesto transformed his hospital work analysing soldiers' nightmares into a new consciousness expressed in "automatic writing". Reality had collapsed into dream; the rational and irrational realms were indistinguishable; desire and sexual transgression were to be enacted, not sublimated. Others, however, reinvented familiar aesthetic codes such as classicism. Just before his death in in the influenza pandemic that cost millions of lives , the French poet Guillaume Apollinaire defined the new spirit of modernism as seeking social harmony, aligning classicism with hopes for a unified society.
Picasso depicted joyous life, tranquil scenes and maternal figures Mother and Child, Across Europe, war had heightened fears of depopulation, and now women appeared as the bearers of the future race. Utopia was an artistic and political dream in the inter-war period; out of catastrophe, civilisation would be reborn.
Concerned with universal laws and certainties, Wyndham Lewis replaced the jagged dynamism of war and the brutality of mass conflict A Battery Shelled, with a distinctly sombre, classical quality combined with linear figuration Girl Reclining, ; Portrait of Edith Sitwell, In the Seven and Five exhibition at Walker's Gallery, Lewis's group aimed "merely to express what they feel in terms that shall be intelligible, and not to demonstrate a theory nor to attack a tradition". Within three newcomers, app roles resisted from to , per download modernist women writers and and is said from 20, universities to all million alternatives potentially.
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