Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods


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Analytical Chemistry , 41 8 , Paul M. Kuznesof, William L. Potassium 2-germaacetate, an analog of potassium acetate. Inorganic Chemistry , 7 12 , Salaria, C. Rulfs, and P. Behavior of Technetium Species with Cupferron.. Analytical Chemistry , 36 1 , Nebel and D.


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Analytical Chemistry , 33 12 , Aikens, Gaby. Schmuckler, F. Sadek, and C. Copper as a Photometric Indicator.

Doak and Leon D. The Structure and Properties of the Dialkyl Phosphonates.. Chemical Reviews , 61 1 , Chapman and R. Spectrophotometirc Determination of Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide. Analytical Chemistry , 29 2 , Inorganic Microchemistry. Analytical Chemistry , 28 4 , Bastian, Richard. Weberling, and Frank. Determination of Iron by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. Cheng and P. Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. Daniele Leonori, Ralph E. A unified approach to mechanistic aspects of photochemical vapor generation. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry , 34 4 , Fewell, A.

Absorption of light by water in the region of high transparency: recommended values for photon-transport calculations. Applied Optics , 58 9 , Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical , , Plasma Sources Science and Technology , 28 3 , Theoretical study of the electronic structure of Zr OH 4 and the effects of impurities and defects. Computational Materials Science , , Shaimaa M. Ahmed, Alan M. Bond, Lisandra L. ChemElectroChem , 5 6 , Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry , , Circular dichroism in functional quality evaluation of medicines.

Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis , , Rani J. Qasem, Ibrahim K. Farh, Mohammed A. Al Essa. Physicochemical and rheological characterization of different Carnoy's solutions applied in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy , 48 10 , Linghong Zhang, Robert J. Photocatalytic reduction of CO 2 to CO by diamond nanoparticles. Diamond and Related Materials , 78 , Yujin Sim, Cheong-Soo Hwang.

Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society , 38 8 , Olya S Keen. Characterisation of ultraviolet-absorbing recalcitrant organics in landfill leachate for treatment process optimisation. Catalysis Today , , Penghui Li, Jin Hur. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology , 47 3 , Correlations between aromaticity of dissolved organic matter and trace metal concentrations in natural and effluent waters: A case study in the Sagami River Basin, Japan. Science of The Total Environment , , Detection Methods in Ion Chromatography.

Effect of dissolved organic matter on Fe II oxidation in natural and engineered waters. Water Research , , Poornima, R. Shanthi, R. Ranith, L. Senthilnathan, R. Sarangi, T. Thangaradjou, Prakash Chauhan. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment , 4 , Wilhelmi, R.

Characterization of Polymer

Bopp, R. Brown, J. Cherwinka, J. Cummings, E. Dale, M. Diwan, J. Goett, R. Hackenburg, J. Kilduff, L. Littenberg, G. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, H. Lu, J. Napolitano, C. Pearson, N. Raper, R. The combination of cross-polarization and magic angle spinning CP-MAS along with proton decoupling yields spectra of solids approaching the resolution of those obtained with solutions.

As an example, Fig. Electron paramagnetic resonance ESR works on the same principle as NMR except that microwave rather than radiowave frequencies are employed, and spin transitions of unpaired electrons rather than nuclei recorded. The NMR spectra record the absorption directly, but ESR spectrometers plot the first derivative of the absorption curve.

The ESR in polymer chemistry is primarily for studying free radical process such as polymerization, degradation, and oxidation. For example, when poly vinyl chloride is irradiated with ultraviolet light, the formation of radical can be detected by ESR. The chemical reaction is shown below and its corresponding ESR spectrum is shown in Fig. Due to the difference in miscibility of each segment, the copolymer is self assembled into highly ordered structure. Lamellae are continuous and very long.

The orientation of lamellae is correlated across several hundreds of nanometer, or even up to a micrometer. Moreover, the lamellae have remarkable persistence length at least several hundred nm indicating a very high bending modulus of the DEH-PPV rod lamellar domain.


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Inset in Fig. We interpret the results as the free energy penalty associated with additional inter-block contacts at the core of a dislocation was much higher than the bending penalty imparted by the rod rigidity. Coherent scattering is determined by wide-angle measurements and incoherent scattering by small angle measurements as shown in Fig. The wide angle diffraction pattern consists of a series of concentric cones arising from scattering by the crystal planes. It is recorded as concentric rings on the X-ray plate superimposed on a diffuse background of incoherent scatter as shown in Fig.

On the contrary, small-angle scatter patterns are very diffuse Fig. Another way to present the two dimensional scattering spectrum of the polymer is making a plot of intensity versus angle of scattering. The patterns and intensity of X-ray scattering can provide considerable information regarding the polymer morphology and structure through visual examination and mathematical modeling interpretation. Atomic force microscopy AFM is used to monitor the surface roughness and hardness of polymer; phase separation of polymer blends. The essential features of AFM are shown in Fig.

The atomic scale probe is scanned through the surface of sample, the change in depth is monitored by laser beam irradiated on the cantilever, fed back by piezoelectric force that response to surface variations sensed by the probe. The sample is mounted on the piezoelectric support. The PS has a higher depth profile and is toward air because of its hydrophobic characteristics. When a transition occurs in a sample, a temperature lag will show as endothermic or exothermic depends on the transition.

For DSC, sample and reference are provided with individual heaters, and energy is supplied to keep the sample and reference temperatures constant. The DTA data only report the softening phase transition temperature of polymer while the DSC also provide the amount of heat involved in the softening process. The DSC is more preferred in the polymer characterization because the precise control and measurement of heat varied in the heating process. Such plots are called thermograms. The figure shows the types of transitions that are interested to polymer scientists. In reporting transition temperatures, it is important to indicate whether one is referring to the onset of the transition or to the inflection point peak maximum, as shown in Fig.

Both conventions are used. TMA employs a sensitive probe in contact with the surface of a polymer sample under a defined load. As the sample is heated, the probe senses thermal transition such as T g or T m by detecting either a change in volume or a change in modulus.

Thermogravimetric analysis TGA is used primarily for determining thermal stability of polymers. The most widely used TGA method is based on continuous measurement of weight on a sensitive balance called a thermobalance as sample temperature is increased in air or in an inert atmosphere. Data are recorded as a weight loss versus temperature. A typical thermogram illustrating the difference in thermal stability between a wholly aromatic polymer and a partially aliphatic polymer of analogs structure is shown in Fig.

Flammability is difficult to measure because the result does not correlate directly the burning behavior in true fire conditions of polymer. Currently, the limiting oxygen index LOI of polymer is employed as an indication of flammability of polymer. The LOI is the minimum percentage of oxygen in an oxygen—nitrogen mixture that will initiate and support for three minutes the candle like burning of a polymer sample; that can be expressed by Eq. The test can be easily carried out in the laboratory using a small-scale fire. Note the large difference in LOI between poly ethylene oxide and poly vinyl alcohol , although they have similar structure.

The dehydration of polyvinyl alcohol will cool the polymer during burning. The polymers contained ether linkage exhibit low LOI due to the presence of oxygen atom. Although the polycarbonate contains oxygen, it releases fire extinguishing CO 2 during burning which increases the LOI value. The polymers having aromatic structure especially in the backbone show high LOI, because the aromatic chain is more difficult to break and burn than that of alkyl chain such as poly phenylene oxide.

The chloride bond of polyvinyl chloride is easy to break under heat and function as an extinguisher to reduce the burning which results in high LOI. The poly tetrafluoro ethylene exhibits the highest LOI among the polymers because of the strong C—F bonding and dense structure of the polymer. Polymer LOI Poly oxy methylene 15 Poly ethylene oxide 15 Poly methyl methacrylate 17 Polypropylene 17 Polyethylene 17 Polystyrene 18 Poly 1,3-butadiene 18 Poly vinyl alcohol 22 Polycarbonate 27 Poly phenylene oxide 28 Polysiloxane 30 Poly vinyl chloride 45 Poly vinylidene chloride 60 Poly tetrafluoro ethylene What kind of polymer can you deduce from the following IR spectrum?

Please answer the following questions: a Which of the following aromatic compounds do you expect to absorb at the longer wavelength? Bikales ed. Stevens, Polymer Chemistry , 3rd edn. Kuptsov, G. Hart, L. Craine and D. Hart, Organic Chemistry , 7th edn. Ho, Y. One stereoregular form of polystyrene A has a 1 H NMR spectrum containing a triplet centered at about 1. Another stereoregular form B has an octet at about 1.

Interpret the spectra and determine which corresponds to isotactic and which to syndiotactic. What changes would be observed in the XRD patterns of rubber that has been stretched? Please use a spectroscopic method to determine the following and explain your answer. Which technique would you use to solve the following problems, a locate a crystalline melting temperature, b determine the degree of orientation, c determine the arrangement of molecular chains in a polymer crystal, d locate the glass transition temperature, e characterize the double bond in the diene polymer, f measure the enthalpy of fusion, g investigate the mechanism of oxidation of a polymer, h study the molecular motion of polymer chains, i estimate the degree of crystallinity, j measure the amide content of an ester-amide copolymer.

Show how NMR can be used to a distinguish between head-to-head and head-to-tail polymerization in polymer, b distinguish between a random copolymer and a mixture of homopolymers. Draw typical DSC and DTA thermograms for a crystalline polymer, showing the glass transition, crystallization, crystalline melting and thermal degradation. Which of the following aromatic compounds do you expect to absorb at the longer wavelength?

Naphthalene is colorless, but its isomer azulene is blue. Which compound has the lower-energy pi electronic transition? Please compare the difference of UV—Vis spectrum of polythiophene between molecular weight of and 30, Explain your answer. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Chapter First Online: 09 October This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy - Wikipedia

Download chapter PDF. Open image in new window The structures of polydienes can be determined via ozonolysis. Open image in new window The amount of double bonds in the polymer chain can be determined by the bleaching of known amount of iodine solution through the addition of reaction of iodine to the double bonds. Particular types of bonds of organic molecule usually stretch within certain rather narrow frequency ranges which are very useful to determine the chemical structure of molecule.

The chemical structures of unknown polymers can be recognized mostly through their specific IR absorption frequency. However, their exact chemical structures cannot deduce from IR spectra only, unless they can be compared with known data or from the IR spectra of their monomers.

The IR of isotactic polystyrene can be obtained by subtracting the spectrum of amorphous polystyrene from the spectrum of semicrystalline polystyrene as shown in Fig. Raman is most responsive to symmetrical stretching in C—C bonds. The stereoisomers of polymer is obtained by rotation around single bonds, so the Raman can be used to study the cis — trans isomerism in elastomers, sulfur crosslinks in rubber, and polymer deformations.

Unlike infrared spectra, UV—Vis spectra are quite broad and generally show only a small number of peaks. The peaks are reported as the wavelengths where maxima occur. The conjugated, unsaturated ketone whose spectrum is shown in Fig. The intensity of an absorption band can be expressed quantitatively. Band intensity depends on the particular molecular structure and also on the number of absorbing molecules in the light path. UV—Vis spectra are most commonly used to detect conjugation. Conjugated systems do absorb there, however, and the greater the conjugation, the longer the wavelength of maximum absorption, as seen in Fig.

Therefore, most of the conjugated polymers exhibit absorption in the visible range see Fig. The proton environment in the molecule can be determined by the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It is usually expressed in parts per million ppm by frequency. At present, very high resolution NMR instruments are available for polymer scientists to gain insights of polymer stereochemistry and monomer sequencing. For example, pure isotactic poly methyl methacrylate can have the possible arrangements for each repeat unit as shown in Fig. Fine structure in the spectra may again be correlated with pentad sequences.

The combination of cross-polarization and magic angle spinning CP-MAS along with proton decoupling yields spectra of solids approaching the resolution of those obtained with solutions. As an example, Fig. Electron paramagnetic resonance ESR works on the same principle as NMR except that microwave rather than radiowave frequencies are employed, and spin transitions of unpaired electrons rather than nuclei recorded.

The NMR spectra record the absorption directly, but ESR spectrometers plot the first derivative of the absorption curve. The ESR in polymer chemistry is primarily for studying free radical process such as polymerization, degradation, and oxidation. For example, when poly vinyl chloride is irradiated with ultraviolet light, the formation of radical can be detected by ESR. The chemical reaction is shown below and its corresponding ESR spectrum is shown in Fig. Due to the difference in miscibility of each segment, the copolymer is self assembled into highly ordered structure.

Lamellae are continuous and very long. The orientation of lamellae is correlated across several hundreds of nanometer, or even up to a micrometer. Moreover, the lamellae have remarkable persistence length at least several hundred nm indicating a very high bending modulus of the DEH-PPV rod lamellar domain. Inset in Fig. We interpret the results as the free energy penalty associated with additional inter-block contacts at the core of a dislocation was much higher than the bending penalty imparted by the rod rigidity.

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Coherent scattering is determined by wide-angle measurements and incoherent scattering by small angle measurements as shown in Fig. The wide angle diffraction pattern consists of a series of concentric cones arising from scattering by the crystal planes. It is recorded as concentric rings on the X-ray plate superimposed on a diffuse background of incoherent scatter as shown in Fig. On the contrary, small-angle scatter patterns are very diffuse Fig.

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Another way to present the two dimensional scattering spectrum of the polymer is making a plot of intensity versus angle of scattering. The patterns and intensity of X-ray scattering can provide considerable information regarding the polymer morphology and structure through visual examination and mathematical modeling interpretation.

Atomic force microscopy AFM is used to monitor the surface roughness and hardness of polymer; phase separation of polymer blends.

Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods
Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods
Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods
Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods
Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods
Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods Handbook of Ultraviolet Methods

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