We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More. NET application tries to perform blocking on waiting for input from the user. Introducing Firmata Protocol Firmata is a protocol for communicating with microcontrollers from software on a computer. Basically, we have implemented the same approach on the previous section. However, Firmata protocol provides a more general model to communicate between the Arduino board and the computer.
In order for Arduino to understand our commands from the computer, we should run the Firmata program in the Arduino boards. You can configure the Arduino target and its port before flashing to the Arduino board. If flashing sketch is done, your Arduino board is ready for receiving commands via Firmata protocol.
However, we can use several Firmata client libraries, which community people created. Since we use. NET to communicate with an Arduino board, we use a Firmata client for a. NET platform. This library is supported for Standard Firmata 2. Then, open it using Visual Studio and compile the project with your current. NET framework version. DLL file on a Solid. Arduino project. It will be used in our project. This scenario can be implemented if you separate the application or probably change the. NET version with a specific target.
Otherwise, you can add this project into your. NET application project by adding a project reference. In this scenario, we build a Console application to reduce a complexity GUI of the. Now create a new project in Visual Studio. Arduino library project into your project.
You can add it via Reference Manager. In this scenario, we use the same wiring from the previous section. After you've created a project in Visual Studio, you can modify Program. First, we instantiate our SerialConnection and ArduinoSession object. Change the Arduino port based on your configuration. Now write the following codes in a Program. Threading; using Solid. Arduino; using Solid. Then, run the program. You should see three blinking LEDs. NET app You can build your own.
NET application with a specific problem to control the Arduino board over the Firmata protocol. You can utilize the SolidSoils4Arduino library to control the Arduino board over the Firmata protocol. For instance, you send a command to the Arduino board to open a door after a. NET application receives a message order. Furthermore, we learned how to control Arduino from a. NET Application. In the last section, we continued to use a Firmata protocol, one of the protocols to communicate to Arduino from the application, to control our Arduino from the.
In the next chapter, we will learn how to sense and actuate on Arduino boards. These involve external devices such as sensors and actuators. In this chapter, we learn several sensor and actuator devices on Arduino boards using a Sketch program and then they will be used by a. For instance, sensing temperature. A sensor device can sense its environment temperature and then it convert to digital form.
Actuating is a process in which an MCU sends digital data to an actuator device to perform something, such as an LED and motor. To capture and convert physical object to digital form, Arduino uses sensor devices such as a camera to measure temperature and humidity. After obtaining the digital form of a physical object, we can perform a computation based on your scenario. On the other hand, if you want to make Arduino do something, you can perform an actuating process using actuator devices such as a servo motor and a relay module.
Arduino can sense and actuate simultaneously. For instance, Arduino senses temperature and humidity. If the measurement result is achieved in a certain threshold, Arduino can perform something via actuator devices, such as turning on a relay module or a servo motor. In the next section, we explore sensor and actuator devices as an example, so we use those devices in our demo.
Exploring Sensor and Actuator Devices In this section, we'll review various sensors and actuators and then see how to use them from an Arduino board using Sketch. These devices can be attached to an Arduino board, but some of those devices need an additional treatment such as command codes, data length, and maximum voltage, in order for Arduino to communicate with these devices.
You should check their datasheet from manufacturer.
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Sensor Devices Sensor devices usually convert from physical objects to digital form. There are many sensor devices whose sensing features you can integrate with Arduino boards. In general, each sensor device has one feature to sense the physical object, for instance, acceleration, temperature, and humidity. This sensor module can sense temperature and humidity in a single module.
This module is easy to use with Arduino boards. This module can convert sound to analog form.
We can attach this sensor to Arduino analog pins. In this case, we use a DHT22 module to sense temperature and humidity. We can connect DHT22 to our Arduino board. You can connect this sensor to an Arduino board through jumper cables. For another approach, you can use a breadboard as a medium to which an Arduino board and sensor devices are connected. It can be installed from Arduino IDE. Find and install the DHT sensor library. Make sure your computer is connected to the Internet to install an additional library. Write the following code: include "DHT. Then, you can compile and upload the program into the Arduino board.
To see our program output, you can run the Serial Monitor tool. This needs a DHT. All DHT functions are already available for you. In the next section, we will explore actuator devices and interact with them from Arduino boards. Actuator Devices Arduino can actuate to perform something such as blinking LEDs, generating sounds, and moving motors.
This task usually has the objective of informing and to giving notification to users or systems so they can take a response. It can display a certain color by combining the three colors: Red, Green and Blue. There are many models for servo which can be used in our Arduino boards.
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RGB LED is a useful actuator which is used to display an indicator, for instance, while Arduino is computing something. I use PWM pins on 9, 10, and You can make your own experiment to display a specific color. Then, compile and upload the program into your Arduino board. NET In the previous section, we learned how to access sensor and actuator devices from Arduino boards using Sketch.
In this section, we explore how to access sensor devices from a. NET application through Arduino. We have learned communication models between an Arduino board and a computer. It is important because we can use these communication models to retrieve sensor data or perform tasks via actuator devices. However, you also can implement a Firmata protocol to communicate with an Arduino board.
The new approach which I want to share about sensing is to use JSON as a message format between Arduino and a computer. This approach is easy to implement. You can download and install it manually. For a scenario case, I use a DHT22 module to sense temperature and humidity.
In the previous section, we already learned how to access DHT22 using Sketch. In this program, we will use it again. We obtain humidity h and temperature t. Then, we pass these values into JSON data. After that, we pass JSON data into a serial port so our program, such as a. NET application, reads data. Compile and upload this program into the Arduino board.
The next step is to build a. In this scenario, I use Json. Json 60 www. We build a program to read data from a serial port. Make sure your computer is connected to the Internet. We can use JsonConvert.
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Now you can modify the Program. The following are codes in the Program. Ports; using Newtonsoft. Json; namespace DotnetDHT 61 www. Please change the serial port for your Arduino. You should change it by your Arduino serial port. Please read Chapter 1 to check a serial port of an Arduino board. Now you can compile and run the program from Visual Studio directly. You should see incoming messages from Arduino.
These messages will be parsed and shown in Terminal for temperature and humidity values. You should change it with a serial port of Arduino in Windows. We utilize CancelKeyPress delete from Console object. Then, we display our sensor data to the Terminal. Finally, we close our serial port connection by calling Close method.
Close ; This is the last of our. NET programs to sense from Arduino. You can do more practice using another sensor device. Then, a. NET program will read the sensor data. NET We have learned to access sensor data from Arduino using. You can get more practice by trying to work some sensor devices. In this section, we build a. NET application to actuate via actuator devices. Now we will work with this actuator using.
Communication between Arduino and a computer uses Firmata protocol so you should install a Standard Firmata Sketch in your Arduino board. It is a Firmata client for. We have learned it in the previous chapter. In our Windows Form Form1. Firmata; 65 www. We can use a ValueChanged event. You should catch it for all TrackBar objects. Then, we read a color value from TrackBar and update our panel color. Please change the Arduino port. In this case, my Arduino was detected as COM5. You should change it for your Arduino serial port. Show err. When users click the Execute button, the program will send red, green, and blue values to Arduino via Firmata by calling a SetDigitalPin method.
Save the program. Now you can run the program. After running, you can change red, green and blue values by changing TrackBar. Furthermore, we built a. NET program to access sensor and actuator devices on Arduino. This platform can run on Raspberry Pi, Windows tablet, and Windows desktop. The main technology from Microsoft,. UWP technology makes our program run on any Windows platform, such as computer, tablet, smartphone, and IoT boards.
We also tried to communicate with Arduino via Firmata protocol. In this chapter, we will learn how to access an Arduino board from. Windows Remote Arduino is a library from Microsoft in which a Windows application-based. NET application which runs on any Windows platform, such as desktop, smartphone, tablet and IoT boards.
Technically, some. UWP technology uses a. NET framework for the base of the program. It means UWP framework is a subset of. NET framework. Each Arduino board should be deployed in a Firmata Sketch program in order for the Arduino board to communicate with another device. To develop this app, you should install Windows 8 or later.
Currently, I recommend using Windows 10 for development. It has installed UWP project templates. In this case, we need three LEDs. We also need a computer with Windows 10 OS installed. Wiring To implement our demo, we should wire our components. After that, you should change baudrate to Select the latest version on Target Version.
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Make sure you select our project. You should see Windows-Remote-Arduino on the References menu. Since our application uses USB, we should enable this capability. The information about application capabilities can be seen in the Package. The next step is to build the application GUI. We add three CheckBoxes, one Textblock, and one button component. This will be implemented on MainPage. Inside MainPage. Firstly, we add our required libraries. Serial; using Microsoft. RemoteWiring; We add additional variables in MainPage class.
We create InitWRA method with the following codes. To obtain this data, you should open the property of Arduino USB which is detected by your computer. Click Details tab. Then, select Hardware Ids on Property. These values should be inserted into our program. Finally, we apply TurnOffLeds on Click event from a button.
The following is the implementation. Our program is ready for testing. Testing You can compile our program. Before you run the program, you should deploy the program to a UWP environment. Right-click on the project and then select Deploy on a context menu. We have already worked with it in Chapter 3. Now we try to access it using Windows Remote Arduino library. You have learned it in the previous section.
The bold script is our additional script. Select StandardFirmata. You will perform this task to build a UWP project in this chapter. We show a canvas whose color can be changed by sliding red, green, and blue color controls. We also catch Click event on button by calling ChangeColor method. We will implement them in MainPage. Now we should modify MainPage. First, we add the required libraries by typing these libraries: using Microsoft. RemoteWiring; Then, we add several variables to manage our pins and colors.
If done, save all files. Testing You can now compile and run the program. If you get an error while running the program, you should deploy the program and then run it. Each Arduino board has I2C on specific pins. In this section, we learn how to access I2C from a. You can find this module easily in an online store, for example, eBay and Aliexpress.
To connect to Arduino, I use jumper cables. After that, install Windows Remote Arduino library. Then, you also should configure the Package. NET program. Please install a StandardFirmata sketch program into the Arduino board before we continue our project. We just put Textblock to show information about Thermistor, Photo-voltaic and Potentiometer values. First, we add the required libraries which are used in the application. Text; using Windows.
Core; using Microsoft. We also define the variable, called i2cReading, as Queue collection, which is used to store reading data from the module. In the reading process, we implement an asynchronous method, so we use a timer via DispatcherTimer object to read sensor data in a continuous time.
In this method, we enable I2C mode and send data to I2C bus to retrieve data from the module. Each reading result is stored in Queue object. To update data into UI, we define UpdateData method. We implement async method because we work in asynchronous mode so we should perform it for crossing among threadings. RunAsync Windows. Testing Now you can compile the program. First, deploy the program and then run it. You should see information for Thermistor, Photo-voltaic and Potentiometer.
In this section, we learn to access Arduino over Bluetooth. In order to work with Windows Remote Arduino over Bluetooth, we need two Bluetooth devices for Arduino and the computer. This module is available in online stores such as eBay, Aliexpress, and Banggood. Several computers usually have built-in Bluetooth 4. For testing, I use an external Bluetooth 4. Just plug it into your computer. Then, the computer should recognize it. In this section, we will use the same demo like the first demo in this chapter: lighting LEDs through UWP application. This demo will use a Bluetooth module to communicate between an Arduino board and a computer.
Bluetooth communication between Arduino and the computer is done using Windows Remote Arduino. On the computer side, we should turn on the Bluetooth device, too. On Windows 10, we can see a Manage Bluetooth device dialog in Settings. You should see our Arduino Bluetooth on this dashboard. The default key for pairing HC is The next step is to write an Arduino and a.
Then, flash the Firmata Sketch program into the Arduino board. Before you perform flashing Firmata Sketch, you should plug out the Bluetooth module from Arduino.
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After completing flashing, you could plug in the Bluetooth module again to an Arduino board. Build your application UI like the BlinkingLed application. Then, we modify the MainPage. We just replace Class type for connection variable. We declare connection variable as BluetoothSerial. You should change baudrate too.
In this case, my Bluetooth device uses baudrate How to get this name? First, open the Property of the paired Bluetooth on the computer. You should see a paired Bluetooth. It shows COM incoming and outgoing. You can turn on LEDs with checking the box. You should see the lighting LED.
In the next chapter, we will explore how our Arduino interacts with a Cloud server. In this chapter, we learn how to publish our sensor data so the data can be consumed by another system. We propose web server, custom server, and cloud server to store your data and the publish it, starting with how to connect your Arduino board to an Internet network and doing sensing and publishing data.
Several techniques to communicate with servers are introduced with several communication protocols. We will also learn how to interact between a. NET application and Arduino to communicate over a network. We build boards which are connected to an Internet network. Each board has its own purpose to connect a network. Arduino, by default, does not provide network capabilities. These boards can communicate with others over a network.
NET Figure You can read about a concept and architecture of IoT and how to build them. What we learn in this chapter is to explore how an Arduino board connects to another system over a network. Network stacks such as wired and wireless networks can be used by Arduino boards. This computer will be used to send and receive data from another system.
In the next section, we'll learn how Arduino connects to an Internet network and then send data to a network system. As another approach to connect to an Internet network, we can use additional Arduino shields to enable our board to connect to an external network. In this section, we explore how an Arduino board connects to a network. This shield is manufactured by Arduino SRL. You can find this shield in your local electronics store. You also can buy the cheaper shield from a Chinese manufacturer.
You just attach this shield on an Arduino board. You can also find this shield on the official website or buy an Ethernet shield from a Chinese manufacturer with low pricing. Try to compile and upload the Sketch program to an Arduino board. Make sure your Ethernet shield is connected to a network cable. Your network should have a DHCP server in the network. You can use a router which is connected to a network. If you want your Arduino board to be placed in any certain area, you can consider connecting your Arduino board to a WiFi network.
As I explained, by default, Arduino board does not have a WiFi module. Make sure your computer is already connected to an Internet network. We can use WiFi library. You can install WiFi library from Library Manager. Find and install WiFi library. Now you can compile and upload the program to Arduino MKR Accessing Arduino over a Network from. NET Application In the previous section, we have learned how to make our Arduino boards connect to an existing network through Ethernet and a WiFi module.
Now we try to build a. NET application to access Arduino boards over air. Our scenario is to build a. We use Arduino MKR as a development board. We implement this URL mapping to our demo. NET Table We need a sketch program in order to interact with an external application such as a UWP application.
Furthermore, a UWP application is a client app which sends commands to Arduino to perform something. NET Now you can test by opening a browser. If you succeed, you should see a response from Arduino MKR Then build the following UI. First, we add our requirement namespace for our program. These methods are to listen to the LED state. WriteLine ex. You can also add additional capabilities on a UWP application. Add an internetClient feature in our application.
Then, try to compile and run the program.
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