Analog Circuit Design Volume 2 Immersion in the Black Art of Analog Design
I have the second edition and this is a fine, if rambling and slightly eccentric, book with loads of useful information across many hundreds of pages — although as I remember it, I did have to read Microchip app notes along with the book when I wanted to set-up the ADC. So each page is littered with this stock phrase and it really spoils the reading flow in an otherwise very readable book.
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- Analog Circuit Design, Volume 2: Immersion in the Black Art of Analog Design.
Unless you really are already a grade-A analogue guru, you will learn something from every page. And for such detailed descriptions of techniques, the language is delightfully readable. Think Alice is being a bit gushing? Read it, and then say I am wrong. A simple method of designing multiple order all pole bandpass filters by cascading 2nd order sections A simple method of designing multiple order all pole bandpass filters by cascading 2nd order sections.
Appendix COptimizing noise performance by calculation of voltage and current noise correlation. An introduction to acoustic thermometry: An air filled olive jar teaches signal conditioning. Low cost coupling methods for RF power detectors replace directional couplers. Circuit collection, volume V: data conversion, interface and signal conditioning products Measurement and control circuit collection: Diapers and designs on the night shift. Practical circuitry for measurement and control problems: Circuits designed for a cruel and unyielding world.
Circuit collection, volume III: Data conversion, interface and signal processing. Circuitry for signal conditioning and power conversion: Designs from a once lazy sabbatical. Circuit collection, volume V: Data conversion, interface and signal conditioning products.
Power conversion, measurement and pulse circuits: Tales from the laboratory notebook. The right of Linear Technology Corporation to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Because of rapid advances in the medical sciences, in particular, independent verification of diagnoses and drug dosages should be made. These Application Notes have been re-named as chapters for the purpose of this book. However, throughout the text there is a lot of cross referencing to different Application Notes , not all of which have made it into the book. For reference, this conversion table has been included; it shows the book chapter numbers and the original Application Note numbers.
These trademarks all belong to Linear Technology Corporation. They have been listed here to avoid endless repetition within the text. Trademark acknowledgment and protection applies regardless. Please forgive us if we have missed any. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Analog Circuit Design, Volume 2 emerges a year after the first volume through the efforts of a dedicated team. For many of us, this is a labor of love, giving further legs to the timeless application notes of the late Jim Williams and many colleagues at Linear Technology.
Thanks first to the authors, who do the heavy lifting—in the lab and through their insightful writing. Also to the dedicated graphics and editorial team that ensured that the application notes are clear and consistent—Gary Alexander and Susan Dale. Finally, to Bob Dobkin for his insight, time and belief in this project.
In the early s we wanted prospective customers to know our name and what we were up to. The real issue was finding a way to productively use the seeming dead time before product availability. What readers wanted was a series of credible, full length technical articles in the language of relevant, working circuits. I moped for weeks over this problem before a possible solution became apparent. The key to this approach was to synthesize the expected products using available ICs and discretes to build rough equivalents on small plugin boards.
We could develop functional applications and write most of the text. Later, when products became available, we could put them into the breadboards and implement the attendant final changes. Once we had done these tasks, we could drop scope photos and specifications into the waiting text, tweak the manuscript, and ship it off. Initially, the whole scheme appeared absurd and eminently unworkable, with uncountable technical and editorial sinkholes. Getting started was much more difficult than I had imagined. Synthesizing the hardware for our unborn ICs proved tricky; my methods, clumsy and stumbling.
Writing was equally painful.
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Text flow was staccato and disjointed because of the gaps that occurred while I waited for results with actual products. I had to keep separate notes directing me to unfinished text when we finally dropped the products into the breadboards. The first article took almost two months, but things slowly became easier.
Tricks to move along the lab work evolved, and I found ways to write more efficiently, making the manuscripts inherently adaptable to the planned additions and changes. Soon, I was producing an almost-finished article every two weeks or so, roaring along, powered by adrenaline, solder, pencils, paper, and pizza. During the next year, life was a dizzy seven-day-a-week blur of breadboards and manuscripts shuttling between work and my home lab. The refrigerator was devoid of food but well-provisioned with Polaroid film to feed the oscilloscope camera.
All this frenetic bustle boiled off any semblance of a normal social life. At dinner in San Francisco, while nominally listening to my date describe her job intricacies, I silently calculated the optimum chapper-channel crossover frequency in a composite amplifier. The regimen of madness continued for about a year, resulting in 35 full-length feature articles between June and November I still write, although at a significantly less frenetic pace.
Now, when the kids in our lab complain to me about writing technical material, I try not to sound like the curmudgeon I am not so slowly becoming. I think that mad tear almost 25 years ago contributes to my current lack of empathy. The acceptance of this book emphasizes the need for making good circuit design applications accessible.
These writings on applications fill a vacuum, since the majority of application notes and magazine articles do not have sufficient depth to teach analog design.
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At the time I learned analog design, there were not yet any analog ICs. Circuits were all transistorized maybe some tubes and the circuit explanations in magazines and books were more complete than many are today. In those days equipment manuals included schematics for repair. I was fortunate to work at a large company with a huge calibration lab for their equipment. I spent many lunch hours perusing the calibration and repair manuals for analog systems. I thank HP, Tektronix and many other companies for their tutorials on analog circuit design that I discovered in the calibration lab.
It is interesting to note that Jim Williams in his early years at MIT spent much time repairing electronic test equipment that was nonfunctional. It is relatively hard to find completed analog designs to study. Books may include analog designs, but they are not necessarily complete circuits with test results. I am pleased that this book series is becoming a teaching handbook of applications. An application should be useful, have multiyear life and be easy to duplicate.
Any good application note should have a description of the application and discussion of where it will be used. It should include ancillary information, such as temperature range, power systems, lifetime and other key data usually excluded in textbooks that just focus on principles. The application block diagram needs to be explained so that the approach to the solution is understandable. Unless you know where you are going, it is difficult to understand how you got there. The circuits for the applications need to be fully developed, have part types and construction information.
The solutions may include specialized components that require the reader to have knowledge of the function and special properties. The circuit should be shown and the properties and function of each item in the circuit explained with sufficient detail that readers can extract that information and use it again. Many analog circuits are layout-sensitive and if not properly laid out, the circuits may not work.
I have seen many circuits constrained by this problem. Finally, designers need a detailed set of test results for the circuit. Without all of these, the applications fail as part of a teaching system. Analog design is challenging. There are many ways to get from input to output, and the circuitry in the middle can lead to divergent results.
Analog Circuit Design Volume 2 - O'Reilly Media
Analog design is like learning a language. When you first learn a language, you begin with a vocabulary book and then analyze writings in that language by looking up words one by one as you encounter them. Likewise, in analog design you learn the basics of the circuit, as well as the function of different devices. You can write node equations and determine what the circuit is doing by studying each of the individual circuits. With analog circuit design, you end up using the basic circuit configurations you have learned—differential amplifiers, transistors, FETs, resistors, and previously studied circuits— to achieve the final circuit.
As with a new language, it takes many years to learn to write poetry, and the same is true of analog circuit design. They contain block diagrams and hookup schematics with thousands of leads to different blocks. So where do people go for analog circuit design?
Analog Circuit Design Volume 2: Immersion In The Black Art Of Analog Design
Hopefully, these books provide some answers, as well as circuit design and test and lab techniques for design and duplication of the circuits. Today, analog design is in greater demand than ever before. Analog design is now a combination of transistors and ICs that provide high functionality in analog signal processing. This volume focuses on fundamental aspects of circuit design, layout, and testing. It is our hope that the talented writers of these application notes shed some light on the black art of analog design.
This application note describes a number of enhancement circuit techniques used with existing 3-terminal regulators which extend current capability, limit power dissipation, provide high voltage output, operate from VAC or VAC without the need to switch transformer windings, and many other useful application ideas. Semiconductor memory, card readers, microprocessors, disc drives, piezoelectric devices and digitally based systems furnish transient loads that a voltage regulator must service.
Ideally, regulator output is invariant during a load transient. In practice, some variation is encountered and becomes problematic if allowable operating voltage tolerances are exceeded. This mandates testing the regulator and its associated support components to verify desired performance under transient loading conditions. Various methods are employable to generate transient loads, allowing observation of regulator response.
This application note presents open and closed loop transient load testing circuitry with measured performance taken under various conditions. Practical considerations for a memory supply voltage regulator are reviewed. Four appended sections cover capacitor parasitics and their effects on load transient response, output capacitor selection, probing techniques and a stabilized transient load tester.
Digital systems, particularly microprocessors, furnish transient loads in the A range that a voltage regulator must service. To meet this need, a closed-loop, kHz bandwidth, linearly responding, A capacity active load is described. Study of this approach is prefixed by a brief review of conventional test load types and noting their shortcomings. Three terminal regulators provide a simple, effective solution to voltage regulation requirements. In many situations the regulator can be used with no special considerations. Some applications, however, require special techniques to enhance the performance of the device.
Probably the most common modification involves extending the output current of regulators. Conceptually, the simplest way to do this is by paralleling devices. In practice, the voltage output tolerance of the regulators can cause problems. Figure 1. Both regulators sense from the same divider string and the small value resistors provide ballast to account for the slightly differing output voltages.
Although this circuit is more complex than Figure 1. Additionally, the current limit may be set to any desired value. Q1, a booster transistor, is servo-controlled by the LT, while Q2 senses the current dependent voltage across the 0.
Boosted regulator schemes of this type are often poorly dynamically damped. Such improper loop compensation results in large output transients for shifts in the load. Normally the regulator sees no load. When Trace A goes high, a 12A load regulator output current is Trace C is placed across the output terminals. The regulator output voltage recovers quickly, with minimal aberration. Q4 corrects this problem, even when there is no load. When the enable command is given Trace A, Figure 1.
If fast turn-off is not needed, Q4 may be omitted. Power dissipation control is another area where regulators can be helped by additional circuitry. Increasing heat sink area can be used to offset dissipation problems, but is a wasteful and inefficient approach. Instead, the regulator can be placed within a switched-mode loop that servo-controls the voltage across the regulator. In this arrangement the regulator functions normally while the switched-mode control loop maintains the voltage across it at a minimal value, regardless of line or load changes. Although this approach is not quite as efficient as a classical switching regulator, it offers lower noise and the fast transient response of the linear regulator.
The LTA functions in the conventional fashion, supplying a regulated output at 3A capacity. The remaining components form the switched-mode dissipation limiting control. This loop forces the potential across the LTA to equal the 3. When the input of the regulator Trace A, Figure 1. When the regulator input rises far enough, the comparator goes high, Q1 cuts off and the capacitor ceases charging. The 1N damps the flyback spike of the current-limiting inductor.
The 4. This free-running oscillation control mode substantially reduces dissipation in the regulator, while preserving its performance. Despite changes in the input voltage, different regulated outputs or load shifts, the loop always ensures the minimum possible dissipation in the regulator. In this version, two SCRs and a center-tapped transformer source power to the inductor-capacitor combination. The transformer output is also diode rectified Trace A, Figure 1.
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